Gitanjali & Beyond <p class="font_8"><span><em>Gitanjali and Beyond</em> is a peer-reviewed open-access international journal, promoting creative writing, artistic expression and research on Rabindranath Tagore’s work and life, his circle and his impact.</span></p> Scottish Centre of Tagore Studies en-US Gitanjali & Beyond 2399-8733 <p>This work is licensed under a <a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a> (CC BY 4.0).</p><p>Authors retain the copyright for articles published in this journal, with first publication rights granted to the journal. As this is an open access journal, articles are free to use, with proper attribution and link to the licensing, in educational, commercial, and non-commercial settings.</p> Front & Back Matter Christine Kupfer ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-11-09 2016-11-09 1 1 10.14297/gnb.1.1.%p Foreword Bashabi Fraser ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-11-09 2016-11-09 1 1 vii xi 10.14297/gnb.1.1.vii-xi Introduction: Spirituality Beyond Religion Christine Kupfer ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-11-09 2016-11-09 1 1 xiii xxi 10.14297/gnb.1.1.xiii-xxi Transnationalist Spirituality of Rabindranath Tagore <p>Focusing on a selection of Rabindranath Tagore’s essays, lectures, and a few of his creative works, this essay draws attention to the spiritual orientation of Tagore’s transnationalism. In his vast and multifaceted writings, Tagore offers an alternative vision of transnational union of humanity, different from and often resistant to nationalist distributions of human relationship. Through close readings of Tagore’s works, this essay complicates Orientalist notions of the East-West polarities. While strongly opposing Western imperialist ideology, Tagore was always frank about his trust in and indebtedness to the liberal humanist values of the West. On the other hand, despite upholding Indian or Eastern spirituality, he was critically aware of the social and political crises of the contemporary East. A large volume of his works betrays his scepticism about any political solution to national and international problems. What he promotes is a spiritual concord of the best in Western and Eastern cultures, connecting the liberal humanist conscience of the West with the harmonizing, all-inclusive spiritual wisdom of the East. Neither completely secular nor thoroughly religious in an institutional sense, the transnationalist spirituality of Tagore bridges the gap between the secular humanism of Western modernity and the mystic–religious spirituality of Eastern antiquity, offering nuanced perspectives on both. </p> Ashim Dutta ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-11-09 2016-11-09 1 1 1 21 10.14297/gnb.1.1.1-21 Câm lặng (silence) in Receptions of Rabindranath Tagore in Colonial Vietnam <p>This article analyses the state of <em>câm l</em><em>ặ</em><em>ng </em>(silence) embodied in Vietnamese literary reactions to Rabindranath Tagore and his works during the French colonial period to address the question of why the Vietnamese colonial reception of Tagore was marginalized from the socialist Vietnamese historiography. The article argues that silence – an image of Annamite spirituality promoted by Tagore and his works as well as by Vietnamese intellectuals – conforms to the Orientalist discourse of spiritual East. Such colonial appreciations of Tagore do not meet any Vietnamese national and class struggles, thus they are made invisible in postcolonial Vietnamese historiography.</p> Chi Pham ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-11-09 2016-11-09 1 1 23 37 10.14297/gnb.1.1.23-37 Education, Visual Art and Cultural Revival: Tagore, Geddes, Nivedita, and Coomaraswamy <p>Rabindranath Tagore and Patrick Geddes were part of the same milieu long before they met. They were both internationally minded cultural thinkers. The links between them are illuminated by consideration of their links with two other internationally minded cultural activists: the Irishwoman Margaret Noble, better known as Sister Nivedita, and the historian of art and ideas Ananda Coomaraswamy. The lives of all four exemplify educational and political expression driven by spiritual commitment and underpinned by literature and the visual arts. </p> Murdo J S Macdonald ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-11-09 2016-11-09 1 1 39 57 10.14297/gnb.1.1.39-57 Atmosphere in Education: Tagore and the Phenomenology of Spheres <p>Rabindranath Tagore (1861-1940), Asia’s first Nobel laureate, was convinced that nothing influences children’s education and upbringing more than the ‘atmosphere’ in which they grow up. He argues that children learn many things by absorbing them unconsciously. In the experimental schools he founded in India, he shifted the focus from the teaching content to creating the conditions that help intensifying children’s connection with the world. The creative and aesthetic potentialities of ‘atmosphere’ are vital in all forms of education. Tagore’s notion of atmosphere is currently gaining new specificity thanks to a range of philosophical reconceptualizations of atmosphere. In this paper, I will compare Tagore’s philosophy of ‘atmosphere’ with concepts that are more commonly used in education today, such as ‘ethos’ and ‘climate’. I will then take the concept forward by comparing it with Sloterdijk’s spherologies and thereby adding a new dimension to his conceptualization of spherology. By comparing Tagore’s ‘atmosphere’ with concepts and ideas of philosophers and social scientists, we will get a better grasp on its importance and scope.</p> Christine Kupfer ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-11-09 2016-11-09 1 1 59 81 10.14297/gnb.1.1.59-81 Tagore's School and Methodology: Classrooms Without Walls This paper argues that Rabindranath Tagore, a very practical man, developed a distinctive and successful educational methodology over the course of his work in educational systems. The paper seeks to show that Tagore drew inspiration and direction from extraordinary times, and extraordinary people of those times. The paper establishes the Tagore family’s place within the ongoing Bengali Renaissance; and to Tagore’s place among remarkable individuals, particularly Jagadish Chandra Bose and Patrick Geddes. The paper looks to the emergence of the poet’s educational institutions from spiritual and technological viewpoints. An attempt is made to show that Tagore’s educational establishments were methodologically developed, can claim to be part of his poetic legacy; and that telepresence technologies of the twenty-first century might offer good service to those establishments as they continue to evolve. Tom Kane ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-11-09 2016-11-09 1 1 83 101 10.14297/gnb.1.1.83-101 Humanist Spirituality and Poetry: Rabindranath Tagore & George Herbert <p class="GBbody">This paper concentrates on how the growth of Rabindranath’s spiritual awareness is gradually revealed in his poetry from 1882 onwards, and in his prose lectures and novels, especially <em>Gora </em>and<em> Chaturanga. </em>Comparison of his devotional outlook with George Herbert’s (already present in the review of the English <em>Gitanjali, Times Literary Supplement, </em>7 November, 1912) is further explored for the present. His sense of divine presence in the natural world and in the heart (<em>jivan devata</em>) is related to his social consciousness and his moderation, and transcended the ordinary thinking of his conflict-ridden times in both East and West, to present a continuing challenge to both religions and secularity in the post-colonial world.</p> Kitty Scoular Datta ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-11-09 2016-11-09 1 1 103 117 10.14297/gnb.1.1.103-117 Tagore in Czech Literary Translation: Interpretation and Gender Analysis <p>This text stems from the perspective of gender methodology and explores the way the two most significant Czech specialists in Bengali and Tagore Studies translated selected concepts in his poems. The first two concepts denote the female in specific contexts; the third one designates the divine. This analysis applies selected feminist theories and focuses on the gendered aspects of language (e.g. the generic masculine) as a discourse of power. One of the key questions is: Is the male gaze reflected in the narration? And how do the translations approach it?</p> Blanka BK Knotkova ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-11-09 2016-11-09 1 1 119 133 10.14297/gnb.1.1.119-133 Understanding Rabindranath Tagore’s Spirituality as Deep Ecology, Deep Anthropology and Political Theology <p>The subject of this paper is the relevance of Rabindranath Tagore’s spirituality to the challenges we face in the world today. Tagore’s mission was ‘to work towards the true union of East and West’. The spiritual worldview Tagore brought to the West from 1912 onwards has been defined by Bengali scholars as ‘the integration of man and nature and God’. This can be expressed in more modern terms as ‘deep ecology, deep anthropology and political theology’, themes that run through the texts of the lectures Tagore gave on his foreign tours. He warned that the machine age would be disastrous for planet and people and urged a return to traditional village based society. He predicted that the dehumanising and destructive modern systems would come to an end, making way for a ‘new chapter in history’. The present crisis of democratic capitalism could lead to disruption or disaster, or else be an opportunity for relocalisation such as Tagore advocated. Movements for world change today focussed on taking responsibility for looking after ourselves and the environment directly through community involvement and decision making could be encouraged and affirmed by association with one of the greatest thinkers of the modern age.</p> Christine Marsh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-11-09 2016-11-09 1 1 135 154 10.14297/gnb.1.1.135-154 Three Paintings Debjani Chatterjee ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-11-09 2016-11-09 1 1 159 167 10.14297/gnb.1.1.159-167 Chitrangada Anjana Basu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-11-09 2016-11-09 1 1 169 177 10.14297/gnb.1.1.169-177 Five Iona Poems Hannah Lavery ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-11-09 2016-11-09 1 1 177 183 10.14297/gnb.1.1.177-183 The Spirit of South West England Ronnie Goodyer ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-11-09 2016-11-09 1 1 185 190 10.14297/gnb.1.1.185-190 Three Gardens LesleyMay Miller ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-11-09 2016-11-09 1 1 191 195 10.14297/gnb.1.1.191-195 Poetry by Subodh Sarkar Jaydeep Sarangi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-11-09 2016-11-09 1 1 197 202 10.14297/gnb.1.1.197-202 Punishment by Rabindranath Tagore Shawkat Hussain ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-11-09 2016-11-09 1 1 203 213 10.14297/gnb.1.1.203-213 Extracts from Plays by Tagore Nigel Planer ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-11-09 2016-11-09 1 1 215 223 10.14297/gnb.1.1.215-223 Speaking Trees LesleyMay Miller ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-11-09 2016-11-09 1 1 229 232 10.14297/gnb.1.1.229-232 Reading Rain Rebeca Gómez Triana ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-11-09 2016-11-09 1 1 233 237 10.14297/gnb.1.1.233-237 Journey in Time & Space: Visual Archives of Rabindranath Tagore Samit Das ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-11-09 2016-11-09 1 1 239 245 10.14297/gnb.1.1.239-245 Stillness and Occurence David Williams ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-11-09 2016-11-09 1 1 247 274 10.14297/gnb.1.1.247-274 The Other Side of Tagore Elizaveta Ilves ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-11-09 2016-11-09 1 1 277 279 10.14297/gnb.1.1.277-279 The Ontological Wall Bishnupuda Ray ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-11-09 2016-11-09 1 1 281 283 10.14297/gnb.1.1.281-283 Commemorating and Reviving Tagore Christine Marsh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-11-09 2016-11-09 1 1 285 288 10.14297/gnb.1.1.285-288